• Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911)July 26, 2011The Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) was the last imperial dynasty in China and was the second non-Han dynasty founded by the Manchus.
  • Ming Dynasty (AD 1368–1644)July 26, 2011Urbanization increased as the population grew and as the division of labor grew more complex. Large urban centers, such as Nanjing and Beijing, also contributed to the growth of private industry.
  • Song, Liao, Jin, and Western Xia Dynasties (AD 960–1234)July 26, 2011In 960, the Song Dynasty gained power over most of China and established its capital in Kaifeng (later known as Bianjing), starting a period of economic prosperity, while the Khitan Liao Dynasty ruled over Manchuria, present-day Mongolia, and parts of Northern China.
  • Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (AD 907–960)July 26, 2011The period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, lasted little more than half a century, from 907 to 960.
  • Tang Dynasty (AD 618–907)July 26, 2011On June 18, 618, Gaozu took the throne, and the Tang Dynasty was established, opening a new age of prosperity and innovations in arts and technology.
  • Sui Dynasty (AD 589–618)July 26, 2011The Sui Dynasty, which managed to reunite the country in 589 after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation, played a role more important than its length of existence would suggest.
  • Southern and Northern Dynasties (AD 420–589)July 26, 2011Signaled by the collapse of East Jin Dynasty in 420, China entered the era of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
  • Wei and Jin Period (AD 265–420)July 26, 2011After Cao Cao reunified the north in 208, his son proclaimed the Wei Dynasty in 220. Soon, Wei's rivals Shu and Wu proclaimed their independence, leading China into the Three Kingdoms Period.
  • Han Dynasty (202 BC–AD 220)July 26, 2011The Han Dynasty (202 BC – AD 220) emerged in 206 BC, with its founder Liu Bang proclaimed emperor in 202 BC. It was the first dynasty to embrace the philosophy of Confucianism.
  • Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC)July 26, 2011Though the unified reign of the Qin Emperor lasted only 12 years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland.
  • Warring States Period (476-221 BC)July 26, 2011After further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of 5th century BC, and the years in which these few states battled each other are known as the Warring States Period.
  • Spring and Autumn Period (722-476 BC)July 26, 2011The Hundred Schools of Thought of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism and Mohism were founded, partly in response to the changing political world.
  • Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC)July 26, 2011The Zhou Dynasty was the longest-lasting dynasty in Chinese history, from 1066 BC to approximately 256 BC.
  • Shang Dynasty (c. 1700-1046 BC)July 26, 2011The earliest written record of Chinese past so far discovered dates from the Shang Dynasty in perhaps the 13th century BC and takes the form of inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals—the so-called oracle bones.
  • Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271–1368)July 26, 2011Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, wanting to adopt the customs of China, established the Yuan Dynasty. This was the first dynasty to rule the whole of China from Beijing as the capital.
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  • History

    China, with a recorded history of more than 5,000 years, is one of the four ancient civilizations. From the time of the founding of Xia dynasty in the 21st century BC to the late Spring and Autumn period, with the Shang and Western Zhou dynasties in between, society was slavery based. From the time of the Warring States period of 475 BC to the early period of the Qing dynasty, with Qin, Western Han, Eastern Han, Three Kingdom, Western Jin, Eastern Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties, Sui, Tang, Five dynasties, Song, Liao, Jin, Yuan, and Ming in between, society was feudal. After the Opium War in 1840, China gradually turned into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society as a result of imperialist invasion. In 1911, the 1911 Revolution, led by Sun Yat-sen, ended the monarchy and on October 1, 1949, the CPC, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, led the masses and established the People’s Republic of China.

  • Ancient era