A survey of more than 1,000 people in Taiwan showed that 58.3 percent of respondents identify themselves as Chinese.
The result was the second highest since the think tank Taiwan Competitiveness Forum (TCF) published the first such survey in February 2013.
The poll also found that 61.5 percent of the respondents said peaceful reunification would bring a better future for the island.
When asked to comment on a new policy that allows residents of Taiwan to apply for residence permits in the Chinese mainland, 63 percent of those surveyed replied they disapprove of the Democratic Progressive Party administrations rolling out punitive measures against permit applicants and holders.
The new regulation, which came into effect on September 1, allows residents of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan to apply for residence permits in the Chinese mainland. Holders of the permit will be able to use it to register vehicles, apply for driver's licenses, take professional qualification exams, purchase tickets online and check in at hotels.
Since 2013, TCF has tracked the public opinion on national identity through 17 such surveys. In this latest one, a total of 1,085 adults aged 20 and older, across Taiwan's 22 cities and counties, were surveyed by telephone in mid-October.
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