Abstract: Shangsi Festival was a portrait of social life in the Qin dynasty and was institutionalized as a ceremony in the Han dynasty during which mainstream scholars explicated and constructed outdoor spring activities to be centered on female customs. From the Han to Six dynasties, Shangsi Festival transformed from waterfront cleansing through swimming to dining in parks and by the lakes, involving wide female participation. Through this transformation, however, women had seen a process in which their mobility had become increasingly limited and that they were no longer able to move freely in open natural space but in men-made pavilions waiting for men to cheer and view. Limitations on women's body and movement were a result of the development of patriarchal society.
Keywords: Shangsi Festival, female customs, gender, space
(Source: Collection of Women's Studies)